chess4j learns some moves from Kasparov

Ok, “learn” is too strong a word. More accurately, chess4j now has a small opening book database populated with a little over 500 Kasparov games. Before doing any thinking on its own, chess4j will consult this database, and if a move is found it will play it. This has the effect of steering the game into a nice position that a Grandmaster might play fairly quickly, and it also adds some more variation to the opening moves as well.

500 games is not a lot, but at the moment the opening book is all contained in memory. That is, when the program starts it reads through those 500+ games, storing them in internal memory, and holding them in memory for the duration of the program’s execution. The next time it starts, it does it again.

I’m really pretty happy with the way this all came together. Here is the method that initializes this in memory opening book:

private static void initBook() throws Exception {
	OpeningBook book = OpeningBookInMemoryImpl.getInstance();
	FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(new File("pgn/Kasparov.pgn"));
	PGNIterator it = new PGNIterator(fis);
 
	PGNGame pgnGame;
	while ((pgnGame = it.next()) != null) {
		book.addToBook(pgnGame);
	}
 
	fis.close();
}

As you can see there are a few key classes that make this all work. First, we need an OpeningBook. OpeningBook is an interface, which in this case is implemented by the Singleton OpeningBookInMemoryImpl. I won’t go into the in memory implementation here, because in the future that will be replaced with something with a persistent datastore behind it (maybe MongoDB). But, I will show the interface it implements:

public interface OpeningBook {
 
	public void addToBook(PGNGame game);
 
	public List<BookMove> getMoves(Board board);
 
	public BookMove getMoveWeightedRandomByFrequency(Board board);
}

Pretty simple at the moment, and likely to be expanded. The key points are that you can add a move to the book, or get a list of BookMoves in a given position, or you can get a single BookMove using a weighted random selection algorithm.

Now that we have an OpeningBook, we need something that is capable of reading through a Portable Game Notation (PGN) file, producing a sequence of PGNGame objects.

PGNGame is really just a data object so I won’t show the code here. It really just encapsulates a game, which we can think of as a series of PGN tags, a list of moves, and a result (win, loss, draw).

The PGNIterator class is a little more interesting though. Since some of these PGN files get fairly large (40-50 mb is not unusual), it’s best to take a ‘streaming’ approach to processing them. Hence, if you look back at the initBook() method, you’ll notice the constructor for PGNIterator is given a FileInputStream. (It will accept any type of InputStream, which it uses internally to create a BufferedReader.)

Here is the next() method of PGNIterator :

public PGNGame next() throws IOException, ParseException, IllegalMoveException {
 
	PGNParser parser = new PGNParser();
	String nextGame = getNextPGN();
 
	if (nextGame != null) {
		return parser.parseGame(nextGame);
	}
 
	return null;
}

I’m glossing over a few details here but hopefully that gets the point across. The call to getNextPGN() looks far enough ahead in the stream to capture the String representation of a game, or returns NULL if it can’t (probably because it hit the end of the file). It then uses this PGNParser to convert the String into a PGNGame. As you might imagine PGNParser uses some regular expression stuff that frankly made my head hurt a little. Finally, we saw above that the PGNGame is added to the opening book.

All of this is part of the 3.0 development so it’s not in the latest release, but the source code is available (along with several unit tests) so if you’re the developer type feel free to check it out from the project website on SourceForge .



Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Comment

You may use these tags : <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>